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Fricative Consonant Sounds

Fricative consonants are made by squeezing air between a small gap as it leaves the body. In English pronunciation, there are 9 fricative phonemes: /f,v,θ,ð,s,z,ʃ,ʒ,h/ made in 5 positions of the mouth:

The fricative sounds /v,ð,z,ʒ/ are voiced, they are pronounced with vibration in the vocal cords, whilst the sounds /f,θ,s,ʃ,h/ are voiceless; produced only with air.

Fricative Sound Spellings

Common spellings for each fricative sound are underlined below:

/f/: far
/v/: save, of
/θ/: think
/ð/: those
/s/: sir, race
/z/: zoo, rise
/ʃ/: sharp, chef, pressure, sugar, motion
/ʒ/: beige, Asia, pleasure
/h/: ahead