< g > Dropping

< g > Dropping

AUDIO KEY: Estuary (bold), Standard (italic)

Throughout the English speaking world people drop the ‘g’ in -ING endings, pronouncing them /n/: WORKIN’, CRYIN’, MOANIN’. It’s a feature of most regional accents, including ‘Estuary English’ – which is spoken in the South East of England. 

In Standard English (GB), ‘ing’ endings are pronounced /ŋ/: WORKING, CRYING, MOANING. 

Listen and decide if the sentence is in Estuary English (with g dropping) or Standard English:

1. Watching this isn’t helping!    EE  GB 

2. Anything worth adding?          EE  GB

3. What are you thinking of doing? EE  GB 

4. Driving without stopping!       EE  GB

5. Something out of nothing.       EE  GB

6. I’m having a meeting at 2.      EE  GB

7. Are you choosing the fittings?  EE  GB

8. This painting’s amazing!        EE  GB

Answers & Audio

1. women
2. once
3. again
4. business
5. says
6. does
7. friend
8. built
9. flood
10. sausage

 

Related Lessons
TH Fronting

TH Fronting

AUDIO KEY: Manchester (bold) In many areas of England, particularly in big cities like Manchester, some speakers don’t pronounce < th > words with /θ,ð/, instead they use /f,v/: THANKS, THEATRE, BROTHER.  So the word THREE is pronounced in the same way as FREE....

/ʊə/ – Modern vs Traditional

/ʊə/ – Modern vs Traditional

AUDIO KEY: Standard (italic), Traditional (bold) The diphthong /ʊə/ is becoming less common in British English speakers. Many words, such as SURE, BOOR, TOUR and CURE are pronounced with /ɔː/ these days in standard pronunciation.   /ʊə/ is still heard in older...

< a > – BATH TRAP Split

< a > – BATH TRAP Split

AUDIO KEY: Birmingham (bold), Standard (italic) Some words spelt with a single < a >, like BATH, GLASS and FAST are pronounced with long /ɑː/ in standard English. In most of the middle and north of England, these same words are pronounced with short /a/ BATH,...

/ʌ/ vs /ʊ/ in Northern English

/ʌ/ vs /ʊ/ in Northern English

AUDIO KEY: Northern (bold), Standard (italic) In northern England, local accents don’t contain /ʌ/ so words like FUN, LOVE and SHUT are all pronounced with /ʊ/  In standard English these words are pronounced with /ʌ/: /fʌn/, /lʌv/ and /ʃʌt/.    - Decide if the...

American vs British < er >

American vs British < er >

In Standard American (GA) English the final ‘r’ is pronounced so words with ‘er’ endings like SHIVER, FIGHTER and SLOWER, end with /r/.  In Standard British English (GB) the final ‘r’ is silent, so these same words end with a schwa: /wɪntə/, /fʌɪtə/ and /sləʊə/.      ...

/ʊə/

/ʊə/

/ʊə/Security during the tournament was poor.The plural of tour is surely ‘tours’. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

Diphthong Expressions

Diphthong Expressions

1. “so so” /əʊ/ 2. “pay day” /eɪ/ 3. “hear hear” /ɪə/ 4. “high time” /ʌɪ/ 5. “out and out” /aʊ/ 6. “hoity toity” /ɔɪ/     Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

Diphthong Vowel Word Construction

Diphthong Vowel Word Construction

- Make 2 (or more) common words by placing diphthong sounds in the gaps:1. /b_t/    2. /n_/    nay, neigh /neɪ/ nigh /nʌɪ/ no, know /nəʊ/ now /aʊ/ near /ɪə/ 3. /fl_/    flay /fleɪ/ fly /flʌɪ/ flow /fləʊ/ 4. /pl_/    play /pleɪ/ ploy /plɔɪ/ ply /plʌɪ/ plough /plaʊ/ 5....

/ɔɪ/

/ɔɪ/

/ɔɪ/The annoying noises spoilt the boy’s joy. My choice as employer is to appoint Floyd. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

/ʌɪ/

/ʌɪ/

/ʌɪ/ Fine wine and light bites tonight. I dislike high and mighty types. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

/əʊ/

/əʊ/

/əʊ/ No, don’t moan over the phone. Although the road is soaked, he’ll go. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

Rhotic vs Non-Rhotic

Rhotic vs Non-Rhotic

AUDIO KEY: West Country (bold), Standard (italic)

In the South West of England where the ‘West Country’ accent is spoken, people pronounce every written < r >, so words like SHARK, HORSE and SPIDER all contain /r/. This is also true of most American, Irish and Scottish accents: they are ‘RHOTIC’.  

Standard English (GB) is NON-RHOTIC, ‘r’ is silent except before a vowel sound: /ʃɑ:k/,
/hɔːs/ and /ˈspʌɪdə/.

Listen and decide if the word is pronounced  in rhotic West Country (WC) or non-rhotic Standard (GB):

1. bird    WC  GB

2. mother  WC  GB

3. car     WC  GB

4. there   WC  GB

5. aren’t  WC  GB

6. port    WC  GB

7. park    WC  GB

8. four    WC  GB

9. thirst  WC  GB

10. nearly WC  GB

11. worth  WC  GB

12. tour   WC  GB

Answers & Audio

1. women
2. once
3. again
4. business
5. says
6. does
7. friend
8. built
9. flood
10. sausage

 

Related Lessons
TH Fronting

TH Fronting

AUDIO KEY: Manchester (bold) In many areas of England, particularly in big cities like Manchester, some speakers don’t pronounce < th > words with /θ,ð/, instead they use /f,v/: THANKS, THEATRE, BROTHER.  So the word THREE is pronounced in the same way as FREE....

/ʊə/ – Modern vs Traditional

/ʊə/ – Modern vs Traditional

AUDIO KEY: Standard (italic), Traditional (bold) The diphthong /ʊə/ is becoming less common in British English speakers. Many words, such as SURE, BOOR, TOUR and CURE are pronounced with /ɔː/ these days in standard pronunciation.   /ʊə/ is still heard in older...

< a > – BATH TRAP Split

< a > – BATH TRAP Split

AUDIO KEY: Birmingham (bold), Standard (italic) Some words spelt with a single < a >, like BATH, GLASS and FAST are pronounced with long /ɑː/ in standard English. In most of the middle and north of England, these same words are pronounced with short /a/ BATH,...

/ʌ/ vs /ʊ/ in Northern English

/ʌ/ vs /ʊ/ in Northern English

AUDIO KEY: Northern (bold), Standard (italic) In northern England, local accents don’t contain /ʌ/ so words like FUN, LOVE and SHUT are all pronounced with /ʊ/  In standard English these words are pronounced with /ʌ/: /fʌn/, /lʌv/ and /ʃʌt/.    - Decide if the...

American vs British < er >

American vs British < er >

In Standard American (GA) English the final ‘r’ is pronounced so words with ‘er’ endings like SHIVER, FIGHTER and SLOWER, end with /r/.  In Standard British English (GB) the final ‘r’ is silent, so these same words end with a schwa: /wɪntə/, /fʌɪtə/ and /sləʊə/.      ...

/ʊə/

/ʊə/

/ʊə/Security during the tournament was poor.The plural of tour is surely ‘tours’. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

Diphthong Expressions

Diphthong Expressions

1. “so so” /əʊ/ 2. “pay day” /eɪ/ 3. “hear hear” /ɪə/ 4. “high time” /ʌɪ/ 5. “out and out” /aʊ/ 6. “hoity toity” /ɔɪ/     Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

Diphthong Vowel Word Construction

Diphthong Vowel Word Construction

- Make 2 (or more) common words by placing diphthong sounds in the gaps:1. /b_t/    2. /n_/    nay, neigh /neɪ/ nigh /nʌɪ/ no, know /nəʊ/ now /aʊ/ near /ɪə/ 3. /fl_/    flay /fleɪ/ fly /flʌɪ/ flow /fləʊ/ 4. /pl_/    play /pleɪ/ ploy /plɔɪ/ ply /plʌɪ/ plough /plaʊ/ 5....

/ɔɪ/

/ɔɪ/

/ɔɪ/The annoying noises spoilt the boy’s joy. My choice as employer is to appoint Floyd. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

/ʌɪ/

/ʌɪ/

/ʌɪ/ Fine wine and light bites tonight. I dislike high and mighty types. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

/əʊ/

/əʊ/

/əʊ/ No, don’t moan over the phone. Although the road is soaked, he’ll go. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

Glottal Stops in Cockney

Glottal Stops in Cockney

AUDIO KEY: Cockney (bold), Standard (italic)

Cockney, which is spoken in East London and Essex, contains a lot of glottal stops. In words like WATER, FITTING and ROTA – where ’t’ appears between 2 vowel sounds, you’ll hear [ʔ]. 

In standard pronunciation, /t/ is pronounced between vowel sounds: WATER, FITTING and ROTA. 

Listen and decide if the sentences are pronounced in standard (GB) or cockney (CKN):

1. Waiter, a pint of water, please.  GB  CKN

2. Have you got a lighter?           GB  CKN

3. Tonight’s the hottest night.      GB  CKN

4. What a great artist               GB  CKN

5. Pat isn’t assertive at all.       GB  CKN

6. What beautiful writing!           GB  CKN

7. It isn’t wet at the moment.       GB  CKN

8. This pattern’s complicated.       GB  CKN

Answers & Audio

1. women
2. once
3. again
4. business
5. says
6. does
7. friend
8. built
9. flood
10. sausage

 

Related Lessons
TH Fronting

TH Fronting

AUDIO KEY: Manchester (bold) In many areas of England, particularly in big cities like Manchester, some speakers don’t pronounce < th > words with /θ,ð/, instead they use /f,v/: THANKS, THEATRE, BROTHER.  So the word THREE is pronounced in the same way as FREE....

/ʊə/ – Modern vs Traditional

/ʊə/ – Modern vs Traditional

AUDIO KEY: Standard (italic), Traditional (bold) The diphthong /ʊə/ is becoming less common in British English speakers. Many words, such as SURE, BOOR, TOUR and CURE are pronounced with /ɔː/ these days in standard pronunciation.   /ʊə/ is still heard in older...

< a > – BATH TRAP Split

< a > – BATH TRAP Split

AUDIO KEY: Birmingham (bold), Standard (italic) Some words spelt with a single < a >, like BATH, GLASS and FAST are pronounced with long /ɑː/ in standard English. In most of the middle and north of England, these same words are pronounced with short /a/ BATH,...

/ʌ/ vs /ʊ/ in Northern English

/ʌ/ vs /ʊ/ in Northern English

AUDIO KEY: Northern (bold), Standard (italic) In northern England, local accents don’t contain /ʌ/ so words like FUN, LOVE and SHUT are all pronounced with /ʊ/  In standard English these words are pronounced with /ʌ/: /fʌn/, /lʌv/ and /ʃʌt/.    - Decide if the...

American vs British < er >

American vs British < er >

In Standard American (GA) English the final ‘r’ is pronounced so words with ‘er’ endings like SHIVER, FIGHTER and SLOWER, end with /r/.  In Standard British English (GB) the final ‘r’ is silent, so these same words end with a schwa: /wɪntə/, /fʌɪtə/ and /sləʊə/.      ...

/ʊə/

/ʊə/

/ʊə/Security during the tournament was poor.The plural of tour is surely ‘tours’. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

Diphthong Expressions

Diphthong Expressions

1. “so so” /əʊ/ 2. “pay day” /eɪ/ 3. “hear hear” /ɪə/ 4. “high time” /ʌɪ/ 5. “out and out” /aʊ/ 6. “hoity toity” /ɔɪ/     Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

Diphthong Vowel Word Construction

Diphthong Vowel Word Construction

- Make 2 (or more) common words by placing diphthong sounds in the gaps:1. /b_t/    2. /n_/    nay, neigh /neɪ/ nigh /nʌɪ/ no, know /nəʊ/ now /aʊ/ near /ɪə/ 3. /fl_/    flay /fleɪ/ fly /flʌɪ/ flow /fləʊ/ 4. /pl_/    play /pleɪ/ ploy /plɔɪ/ ply /plʌɪ/ plough /plaʊ/ 5....

/ɔɪ/

/ɔɪ/

/ɔɪ/The annoying noises spoilt the boy’s joy. My choice as employer is to appoint Floyd. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

/ʌɪ/

/ʌɪ/

/ʌɪ/ Fine wine and light bites tonight. I dislike high and mighty types. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

/əʊ/

/əʊ/

/əʊ/ No, don’t moan over the phone. Although the road is soaked, he’ll go. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

TH Fronting

TH Fronting

AUDIO KEY: Manchester (bold)

In many areas of England, particularly in big cities like Manchester, some speakers don’t pronounce < th > words with /θ,ð/, instead they use /f,v/: THANKS, THEATRE, BROTHER. 

So the word THREE is pronounced in the same way as FREE. This is known as ‘th fronting’ because the sound is made further to the front of the mouth.

Listen and decide if the sentences contain dental (θ, ð) or front (f,v) TH sounds:

1. I think so. /θ,ð/ /f,v/

2. That’s pathetic. /θ,ð/ /f,v/

3. Think nothing of it. /θ,ð/ /f,v/

4. It’s further than I thought. /θ,ð/ /f,v/

5. This is the seventh time. /θ,ð/ /f,v/

6. Thanks, that’s so thoughtful! /θ,ð/ /f,v/

7. They’re really thirsty. /θ,ð/ /f,v/

8. The thing is,  he’s my brother! /θ,ð/ /f,v/

Answers & Audio

1. women
2. once
3. again
4. business
5. says
6. does
7. friend
8. built
9. flood
10. sausage

 

Related Lessons
TH Fronting

TH Fronting

AUDIO KEY: Manchester (bold) In many areas of England, particularly in big cities like Manchester, some speakers don’t pronounce < th > words with /θ,ð/, instead they use /f,v/: THANKS, THEATRE, BROTHER.  So the word THREE is pronounced in the same way as FREE....

/ʊə/ – Modern vs Traditional

/ʊə/ – Modern vs Traditional

AUDIO KEY: Standard (italic), Traditional (bold) The diphthong /ʊə/ is becoming less common in British English speakers. Many words, such as SURE, BOOR, TOUR and CURE are pronounced with /ɔː/ these days in standard pronunciation.   /ʊə/ is still heard in older...

< a > – BATH TRAP Split

< a > – BATH TRAP Split

AUDIO KEY: Birmingham (bold), Standard (italic) Some words spelt with a single < a >, like BATH, GLASS and FAST are pronounced with long /ɑː/ in standard English. In most of the middle and north of England, these same words are pronounced with short /a/ BATH,...

/ʌ/ vs /ʊ/ in Northern English

/ʌ/ vs /ʊ/ in Northern English

AUDIO KEY: Northern (bold), Standard (italic) In northern England, local accents don’t contain /ʌ/ so words like FUN, LOVE and SHUT are all pronounced with /ʊ/  In standard English these words are pronounced with /ʌ/: /fʌn/, /lʌv/ and /ʃʌt/.    - Decide if the...

American vs British < er >

American vs British < er >

In Standard American (GA) English the final ‘r’ is pronounced so words with ‘er’ endings like SHIVER, FIGHTER and SLOWER, end with /r/.  In Standard British English (GB) the final ‘r’ is silent, so these same words end with a schwa: /wɪntə/, /fʌɪtə/ and /sləʊə/.      ...

/ʊə/

/ʊə/

/ʊə/Security during the tournament was poor.The plural of tour is surely ‘tours’. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

Diphthong Expressions

Diphthong Expressions

1. “so so” /əʊ/ 2. “pay day” /eɪ/ 3. “hear hear” /ɪə/ 4. “high time” /ʌɪ/ 5. “out and out” /aʊ/ 6. “hoity toity” /ɔɪ/     Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

Diphthong Vowel Word Construction

Diphthong Vowel Word Construction

- Make 2 (or more) common words by placing diphthong sounds in the gaps:1. /b_t/    2. /n_/    nay, neigh /neɪ/ nigh /nʌɪ/ no, know /nəʊ/ now /aʊ/ near /ɪə/ 3. /fl_/    flay /fleɪ/ fly /flʌɪ/ flow /fləʊ/ 4. /pl_/    play /pleɪ/ ploy /plɔɪ/ ply /plʌɪ/ plough /plaʊ/ 5....

/ɔɪ/

/ɔɪ/

/ɔɪ/The annoying noises spoilt the boy’s joy. My choice as employer is to appoint Floyd. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

/ʌɪ/

/ʌɪ/

/ʌɪ/ Fine wine and light bites tonight. I dislike high and mighty types. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

/əʊ/

/əʊ/

/əʊ/ No, don’t moan over the phone. Although the road is soaked, he’ll go. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

/ʊə/ – Modern vs Traditional

/ʊə/ – Modern vs Traditional

AUDIO KEY: Standard (italic), Traditional (bold)

The diphthong /ʊə/ is becoming less common in British English speakers. Many words, such as SURE, BOOR, TOUR and CURE are pronounced with /ɔː/ these days in standard pronunciation.  

/ʊə/ is still heard in older speakers and in some regional and traditional accents. So the  same words are /ʃʊə/, /bʊə/, /tʊə/ and /kjʊə/.  

Choose the pronunciation you hear from /ʊə/ (traditional) or /ɔː/ (modern):

POOR    /ʊə/ /ɔː/
TOUR    /ʊə/ /ɔː/
MOOR    /ʊə/ /ɔː/
LURE    /ʊə/ /ɔː/
POUR    /ʊə/ /ɔː/
SECURE  /ʊə/ /ɔː/
MATURE  /ʊə/ /ɔː/
LIQUEUR /ʊə/ /ɔː/
PURE    /ʊə/ /ɔː/
ENDURE /ʊə/ /ɔː/

Answers & Audio

1. women
2. once
3. again
4. business
5. says
6. does
7. friend
8. built
9. flood
10. sausage

 

Related Lessons
TH Fronting

TH Fronting

AUDIO KEY: Manchester (bold) In many areas of England, particularly in big cities like Manchester, some speakers don’t pronounce < th > words with /θ,ð/, instead they use /f,v/: THANKS, THEATRE, BROTHER.  So the word THREE is pronounced in the same way as FREE....

/ʊə/ – Modern vs Traditional

/ʊə/ – Modern vs Traditional

AUDIO KEY: Standard (italic), Traditional (bold) The diphthong /ʊə/ is becoming less common in British English speakers. Many words, such as SURE, BOOR, TOUR and CURE are pronounced with /ɔː/ these days in standard pronunciation.   /ʊə/ is still heard in older...

< a > – BATH TRAP Split

< a > – BATH TRAP Split

AUDIO KEY: Birmingham (bold), Standard (italic) Some words spelt with a single < a >, like BATH, GLASS and FAST are pronounced with long /ɑː/ in standard English. In most of the middle and north of England, these same words are pronounced with short /a/ BATH,...

/ʌ/ vs /ʊ/ in Northern English

/ʌ/ vs /ʊ/ in Northern English

AUDIO KEY: Northern (bold), Standard (italic) In northern England, local accents don’t contain /ʌ/ so words like FUN, LOVE and SHUT are all pronounced with /ʊ/  In standard English these words are pronounced with /ʌ/: /fʌn/, /lʌv/ and /ʃʌt/.    - Decide if the...

American vs British < er >

American vs British < er >

In Standard American (GA) English the final ‘r’ is pronounced so words with ‘er’ endings like SHIVER, FIGHTER and SLOWER, end with /r/.  In Standard British English (GB) the final ‘r’ is silent, so these same words end with a schwa: /wɪntə/, /fʌɪtə/ and /sləʊə/.      ...

/ʊə/

/ʊə/

/ʊə/Security during the tournament was poor.The plural of tour is surely ‘tours’. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

Diphthong Expressions

Diphthong Expressions

1. “so so” /əʊ/ 2. “pay day” /eɪ/ 3. “hear hear” /ɪə/ 4. “high time” /ʌɪ/ 5. “out and out” /aʊ/ 6. “hoity toity” /ɔɪ/     Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

Diphthong Vowel Word Construction

Diphthong Vowel Word Construction

- Make 2 (or more) common words by placing diphthong sounds in the gaps:1. /b_t/    2. /n_/    nay, neigh /neɪ/ nigh /nʌɪ/ no, know /nəʊ/ now /aʊ/ near /ɪə/ 3. /fl_/    flay /fleɪ/ fly /flʌɪ/ flow /fləʊ/ 4. /pl_/    play /pleɪ/ ploy /plɔɪ/ ply /plʌɪ/ plough /plaʊ/ 5....

/ɔɪ/

/ɔɪ/

/ɔɪ/The annoying noises spoilt the boy’s joy. My choice as employer is to appoint Floyd. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

/ʌɪ/

/ʌɪ/

/ʌɪ/ Fine wine and light bites tonight. I dislike high and mighty types. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons

/əʊ/

/əʊ/

/əʊ/ No, don’t moan over the phone. Although the road is soaked, he’ll go. Previous & Next Lessons Related Lessons